Mark Graban’s Lean Blog has put together a collection of Dilbert comic strips that pokes fun at Lean and Six Sigma implementation. Enjoy!!
In a previous post Leadership and a Trusting Culture I talked about the importance of developing trust as a critical component of managing change in any organization.
To build trust, leaders must first develop listening skills.
Team members must know that their ideas will be heard and given proper consideration. The synergies to be derived from team participation will never be realized if team members don’t trust that their leadership will listen and have a capacity to understand them.
Well intentioned leaders often “kill” ideas without even realizing that they are doing it. A large number of phrases have crept into our daily speech that result in immediate freezing of the desire to openly share ideas. “We have tried that before”, ” that will never work” are some examples of idea killing phrases that will halt any creative cooperation. Being careful to refrain from providing “knee jerk” negative feedback is an important skill to be acquired by all leaders.
It is a well established method in all types of brainstorming exercises to withhold criticism while ideas are being gathered. The absence of criticism provides an atmosphere where creativity is uninhibited. Once all ideas are vented, the leader and the team may engage in the critical evaluation of the benefits, costs, and general practicality of each solution to the problem at hand.
The “wild and crazy” ideas that appear impractical at first, often become the real problem solvers. If team members are free to think and express themselves they can often put a different “spin” on an impractical idea that overcomes the initial objections. One idea may be the initial spark of creativity that can be used as a “springboard” by other team members.
When a leader criticizes prematurely, or places too many limits on the types of ideas that are welcomed, the results are predictably unproductive. In a recent Dilbert comic strip, Scott Adams makes this point.
Tom Feltenstein offers a hilarious and powerful video, titled “99 Idea Killers.”
Paul Williams advises teams to “pause before you pounce” on an idea. He has developed “Idea Killer Bingo Card” to help teams recognize their own use of reactive negative feedback.
I heard one of QMA clients express disappointment with the results of their “suggestion box” recommendations. In facilitating some of their team efforts it became evident to us that leaders, at all levels, were quick to criticize the ideas of others and find reasons why the solutions wouldn’t work. They often assumed they knew the answers to the problems.
After privately confronting them with their negative attitudes towards the ideas of others, they made genuine efforts to improve the way they interacted with team members. It turned out that many of their inefficiencies were easily eliminated once team members trusted their leaders to listen to them and became fully engaged in the organization’s continual improvement efforts.
What is the worst idea killing criticism you’ve witnessed? Do you have a special technique to deal with negativity of “idea killers”? Please share your comments below.
Lean: Is It All or Nothing? – Manufacturing Executive Community- Question posted originally on: http://www.manufacturing-executive.com/message/2637
A company can often obtain small gains by utilizing the Lean tools. For instance, using 5S to organize the shop floor results in immediate gains in productivity and accident prevention. However, sustainability of the improvements depends on the last two steps “standardize” and “sustain”. This is where most organizations fail and where the development of a Lean culture is necessary.
The development of a Lean culture takes time, as Matt mentioned above. As people start seeing the benefits of Lean, they will start getting involved in improvement efforts. Lean is all about incremental improvements that add up over time. If large gains are obtained initially, that is icing on the cake.
The emphasis should be on Continuous Improvement and waste elimination, not on cost savings (these will come soon enough). Training, education and empowerment at all levels are also essential to developing a culture where waste elimination is an integral part of the organization.
In Lean applications, it is very important to assess “value” from the customer’s vantage point. Activities that don’t add value to the product or service are by definition “waste.”
Delivering what the customer wants when he wants it is the primary thrust of Lean. The vehicle for accomplishing this is the elimination of waste from processes. ISO 9001:2008 emphasizes meeting customer requirements and continually improving the Quality System.
Quality objectives in the ISO Quality Management System can be derived by focusing on the customer needs and requirements and by using Lean tools in helping with the attainment of these objectives.
To maintain customer focus, you must:
- Research and understand your customer’s requirements–needs and expectations.
- Ensure that your company’s objectives are linked to these requirements.
- Communicate the importance of meeting these requirements to your employees.
- Track your performance against the Quality objectives.
- Use Lean and statistical tools to improve performance, eliminate waste, and reduce variation.
- Measure and track customer satisfaction; act on the results–complaints, as well as, compliments.
- Manage the details of customer relationships in a systematic manner.
Continued customer satisfaction results in improved customer loyalty leading to repeat business. Obtaining customer loyalty should be one of your most important goals.
A Lean ISO system is one of the best means of achieving long-term customer loyalty by focusing on the customer requirements and making the customer the driving force of your organization.
The International Workshop Agreement (IWA) system allows guidelines to be issued for compliance with ISO standards for specific sectors. These guidelines are not new requirements, nor do they change the requirements of the standard; the intention is not to be used for compliance or certification, but serve as guidelines for better application of the standard.
The document IWA 4, revised in 2009, is an International set of guidelines created by approval of the ISO Technical Management Board and under the leadership of the Mexican Government Directory of General Norms of the Secretary of the Economy. The objective was to provide “Guidelines to facilitate the application of ISO 9001:2008 to Local Governments.”
This document provides alignment for the application of ISO 9001:2008 to local governments and provides timely examples to facilitate interpretation. In addition, Attachment A provides a process map as a guide for the organization of local government initiatives.
The IWA 4 Attachment B contains an integrated tool for the self-assessment of parameter metrics for the minimum elements that a local government must have in order to comply, or exceed the directives.
The structure of IWA 4 is based on ISO 9001:2008 with the addition of the two attachments as follows:
- Objective and scope
- Normative references
- Terms and definitions
- Quality Management System
- Management Responsibility
- Resource Management
- Product Realization
- Measurement Analysis and Improvement
Attachment A – Process Map
Attachment B – Assessment for Reliable Governments
The IWA-4:2009 document can be purchased from the ISO website.
Adapted from FIDEGOC (Fundacion Internacional para el Desarrollo de Gobiernos Confiables: International Foundation for the Development of Reliable Goverments).
People not familiar with the ISO 9001 standard may think of it as being bureaucratic with lots of extra paperwork. In reality, this is far from the truth.
The ISO 9001:2008 standard requires that you establish controls for your business, that you monitor customer satisfaction and that you continually improve your processes. These basic elements are essential for any organization to succeed.
The ISO standard does not specify “how” these elements are to be implemented, thereby giving each organization the flexibility of complying while conducting its business in an effective manner. Using Lean concepts in the implementation of ISO 9001 enables the organization to gain all the benefits of the structure of this system without creating a bureaucratic burden. Following are some of the popular myths regarding ISO requirements that often prevent a Lean implementation.
1) Myth. The Quality Manual needs to be very detailed in describing the quality system.
Truth. The manual should briefly state the key processes and their interactions. It needs to make reference to the procedures and flow diagrams that describe the processes in more detail. The manual does not contain any proprietary information and does not have a minimum length.
2) Myth. Several “controlled” hard copies of the Manual are needed.
Truth. The entire document and records control system can be in electronic format. Although many organizations prefer having a certain number of “controlled” hard copies, the standard does not require it. The key here is control; making sure that only the latest valid information (procedures, forms, etc.) are used. Having several sets of “controlled” copies makes it more difficult to maintain the documentation. Maintaining one controlled “hard copy” set may be a good idea as a quick reference.
3) Myth. Employees must have easy access to a “hard copy” of the procedures and “work instructions” that apply to them.
Truth. Again, these procedures and work instructions can be available in a controlled electronic format. Documentation must be readily available and securely stored and a method needs to be developed for revision and approval.
4) Myth. A procedure is needed for everything.
Truth. ISO requires only six procedures which can be condensed to five: document control, records control, non-conforming product handling, internal auditing, preventive and corrective actions. Other procedures should be developed when they add value to an internal customer or external customer viewpoint or improves communications between the functions that will use it.
5) Myth. ISO prevents Lean implementation because all changes need to be documented and approved.
Truth. The ISO standard expects Continual Improvement to take place and Lean provides a set of concepts and tools to reduce waste and thereby improve processes. Lean improvements should be documented once the new procedure is confirmed to result in improved results.
6) Myth. All procedures and work instructions need to be written in a consistent format.
Truth. ISO documentation can take many forms including written procedures, pictures, drawings, flow charts, and screen shots. Procedures need not be wordy or complex. The key is that the information be understood and accessible by the people using it.
Will people with different language and cultural backgrounds be able to understand the procedure or work instruction without much need for interpretation? Dispelling these myths will allow for the implementation of a highly effective Lean Quality Management System using the ISO 9001 structure.
The elimination of waste is the main focus of Lean Manufacturing. In recent years, many organizations have incorporated the concept of the “eighth waste” in their implementation of Lean Manufacturing. Many early sources spoke about the Seven Wastes that are found in most processes:
- Inappropriate processing
- Building unnecessary inventories
- Conducting unnecessary movements
- Defects and errors
Lean practitioners have come to recognize that elimination of these seven wastes is highly dependent on getting people involved in the Improvement process. This failure to fully utilize the workforce talents and fully engage employees is now considered the most significant waste of all and is referred to as the eighth waste.
These wastes are symptoms of the underlying root cause for the real problems. For instance, excess inventories may be an indication of unbalanced workloads, machine breakdowns, misunderstood customer requirements, and unreliable suppliers.
Being on the lookout for the evidence of waste provides a starting point for the investigation of the root causes and for finding solutions to the problems. Employees are not only closer to the symptoms, but also closer to the root causes of the problems.
In a previous article, I explained the compatibility of ISO 9001:2008 and Lean Manufacturing. ISO 9001:2008 specifies that the organization must disseminate its’ Quality Policy and Objectives so that all employees understand them and how their jobs contribute to them. It also specifies that the organization must be engaged in the continual improvement of its Quality Management System.
The eighth waste can be described as “underutilized minds.” Although ISO has some built-in requirements for improvement such as internal audits, corrective and prevention action systems, it does not prescribe how employees, in general, should be involved in the continual improvement of the organization.
To address the eighth waste, organizations desiring to institute a Lean ISO system need to:
- Train employees early in the process on the Quality Policy and Objectives so that they begin to understand their roles in the process.
- Engage employees in the documentation process including involvement in writing the initial drafts of procedures or work instructions.
- Select and train employees as Internal Auditors so that they learn about other areas within the company when participating in audits.
- Involve employees in Internal Audits as both Auditors and Auditees.
- Engage employees in workspace organization and standardization (5S) and in improvement events such as Value Stream Mapping and Kaizen activities.
- Train employees in root cause analysis and basic problem solving techniques so that they can assist in maintaining the Corrective and Preventive Action Systems (CAPA).
- Develop workplace organization score cards and train your Internal Auditors in their use.
These actions will significantly reduce the eighth waste in the organization by engaging the workforce in the Continual Improvement process.
The following were the top 10 most frequently cited Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards in fiscal year 2010 (October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010):
- Scaffolding, general requirements, construction: 29 CRF 1926. 451
- Fall protection, construction: 29 CFR 1926.501
- Hazard communication standard, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.1200
- Ladders, construction 29 CFR 1926.1053
- Respiratory protection, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.134
- Control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout), general industry: 29 CFR 1910.147
- Electrical, wiring methods, components and equipment, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.305
- Powered industrial trucks, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.178
- Electrical systems design, general requirements, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.303
- Machines, general requirements, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.212
The following are the standards for which OSHA assessed the highest penalties in fiscal year 2010 (October 1, 2009 through September 30, 2010):
- Fall protection, construction: 29 CFR 1926.501
- Electrical, general requirements, construction: 29 CFR 1926.403
- Safety training and education, construction: 29 CFR 1910.21
- Control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout), general industry: 29 CFR 1910.147
- Machines, general requirements, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.212
- General duty clause: Section 5(a)(1) of the OSHA Act
- Excavations, requirements for protective systems, construction: 29 CFR 1926.652
- Lead, general industry: 29 CFR 1910.1025
- Grain handling facilities: 29 CFR 1910.272
- Ladders, construction: 29 CFR 1926.1053
For more detailed information, visit Frequently Cited OSHA Standards. At that site, you can generate a report on the most frequently cited federal or state OSHA standards by your SIC code and the number of employees in your establishment.
For assistance in safety training and OSHA compliance, contact us.
Some people think that compliance with ISO 9001:2008 inhibits innovation and Lean transformational change. This is very far from the truth. I previously wrote about how compatible and complementary both methods are when implemented in the same timeframe. I will explain in more detail below.
ISO requires the organization to be engaged in Continual Improvement. Lean provides one vehicle for a company to be focused on the customer, while constantly working at making the organization’s processes more effective.
ISO 9001 is designed in a Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) format for Continual Improvement. In implementing ISO, we plan for the development (Plan), we implement it (Do), we audit against the standard (Check) and we take corrective action when necessary and continue the cycle by identifying and pursuing opportunities for improvement (Act).
During the Planning stage, we can use the Lean principles to assure that the documentation is “value-added”, that they are truly needed, that procedures are written in a simple concise manner and that work instructions are made as visual as possible and easily understood by the user. Procedures and work instructions should encourage their use and facilitate training and cross-training.
The key for the ISO implementation is to get a “snap-shot” of the Current State and to document it. Value Stream Mapping, a Lean method, is useful in identifying process steps and opportunities for improvement in the Current State and to document the possible improvements in a Future State Map. A Continual Improvement Plan could then be developed to identify actions, responsibilities, and target dates for the improvements.
Significant improvements will be documented as “Preventive Actions” for follow-up in the ISO system. Any improvement that reduces lead-time or increases product/service Quality is a valid candidate as a Preventive Action as it will prevent customer dissatisfaction.
In Lean, Rapid Improvement Events (Kaizen) address solutions to the opportunities identified in the Continual Improvement Plan. Once such solutions are identified, tested and implemented (again, P-D-C-A), the new process needs to be documented in the ISO system.
Lean uses the concept of “standard work”, a method that identifies the sequence of activities, the use of the resources needed, and the time planned to keep up with customer demand. Standard work provides an excellent vehicle for identifying the “inputs” and “outputs” for each process as required by ISO standards.
Sustainability of Lean methods, such as the 5s workplace organization, requires following up and auditing to assure that the organization does not return to the “old ways”. The ISO systems for conducting Internal Audits and taking Corrective and Preventive Actions provide methods for sustaining the Lean improvements made, provided these processes are standardized and documented. Checklists can be written to include these improved processes so that they can be audited and monitored.
It all fits together. There is no need to be concerned with a “chicken/egg” argument, as to which should be done first. Just plan what you want to do, then do it, check it and act on it! You will always want to make it better, and should.
Some people get stuck soon after starting an ISO 9001:2008 implementation with developing a Quality Policy and, soon after, in developing Quality Objectives. Once you know what is expected, the process of developing them is very simple.
You could think of a Quality Policy as a company’s mission statement from the customer’s point of view. The policy should mention that your company is dedicated to meeting customer requirements and exercising continual improvement of the Quality Management System (QMS). The policy informs everyone inside and outside the organization of the company’s Quality perspective, taking the customer’s requirements as primary consideration.
The Quality Policy needs to be appropriate to the business of the company. It should be stated in simple terms that everyone in the organization can relate to and make it their own. This also means that the policy needs to reflect the overall values of the company and be consistent with other company public statements.
The policy should be developed early in the process of building the QMS. It then becomes the guiding light for the QMS. Top management needs to be closely involved in its development and needs to disseminate it throughout the organization. Ideally, top management should involve the management team and get consensus on its final form.
If the Quality Policy is a true reflection of the organization, the Quality Objectives will be easy to develop. The Quality Objectives are measurable and achievable statements that support the policy.
What measures do you need to assure that you are meeting customer requirements? This will vary from company to company and even will vary for different type of customers within the company. For instance, if you are encountering customer complaints, customer returns, high internal reject rates, poor supplier quality, or late deliveries, these are all good areas to target. You need to first establish your metrics and develop a baseline, so that you can determine what level of improvement is attainable. The metrics and targets become your Quality Objectives –usually three or four.
In many cases, the company is already using these metrics to measure its business, but has not established clear measurable improvement goals. The performance against the objectives should be tracked frequently and reviewed formally at Management Review meetings. The suitability of the objectives, the policy and the effectiveness of the QMS, in general, should be reviewed at these meetings as well.
The Quality Policy and Objectives are the keystone of the QMS in guiding the organization in complying with customer requirements and the need for Continual Improvement.